COVID-19 Op-ed

Concealing Data During the Pandemic: A Human Security Threat in Indonesia

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Muhammad Faiz
Krisnadi
Undergraduate student at International Program
of International Relations, Universitas Muhammadiyah
Yogyakarta

As reported by Tempo (Ernis, 2020), the
death rate from COVID-19 in Indonesia has exceeded 13,000 as of Friday, July
3, 2020, almost four times the official confirmed number of deaths published
by the Ministry of Health. The public address by the Official Indonesian
Spokesperson for COVID-19 failed to reflect the real number of COVID-19
cases. However, the receipt of accurate data from the government is a basic
human right, especially in the context of a pandemic when our health security
is vital.

Accurate and correct data will make people more alert; it
will also help the government and regional apparatus focus their limited
resources on targeting outbreaks and supplying necessities at the most
critical points. Correct data will also guide researchers to build epidemic
curves, calculate effective spread ratios (Rt), and conduct various analyses
to suppress the outbreak rate and cope with wider impacts on public health,
which will also have a positive impact on the economy. In addition, data
transparency is also a legal obligation of the government according to
National Law No. 14/2008 regarding Public Information Openness (Indonesian
Government, 2008).During this crisis, the world needs to collaborate on
public health policy, which is data-driven. In addition, the fact that virus
transmitters could be asymptomatic was terrifying because it raises the
possibility for us to be infected by people with or without symptoms
(Schwalbe, 2020). These asymptomatic phenomena were affecting the data-driven
policy-making, because the obstacle was the minimum swab testing and tracking
for the vulnerable, which would not be noted by official statistics.The lack
of a tracing system in public health is the biggest threat, while the
mortality rate keeps increasing. The number of infected people exponentially
increases in tragic calculation. According to the datasets from the World
Bank (World Bank, 2020), the critical impact of COVID-19 is multidimensional,
including economic activity, education, technology, and the whole human life.
Creating a daily report case such as the one issued by the WHO (World Health
Organization, 2020) should be followed by member states. The state is
responsible to make their data accessible for each of their citizens because
many infected people are dying, more than the reported cases.The development
of the discourse of human rights issues bring us to the non-traditional security
concept called human security. This concept criticizes the essence of the
traditional concept that only focused on military security tools, which is
irrelevant to the status quo (Oratmangun, 2003). In the context of the
pandemic, the biggest concern would be on health security, where people have
rights to secure their health as part of the basic right to life.In the
digital era, much information is being pushed at us, whether it is correct or
a hoax. However, to fight against COVID-19 is to fight the society about how
destructive the virus is. Apart from scientific debate, we are still facing a
number of conspiracy theories and false information in regard to the COVID-19
outbreak. It takes a lot of energy and synergism among all elements to fight
senseless information because it violates our human right to secure our
health.While government officials engage in their long bureaucratic process
of decision making, the private sector has already acted amidst our society.
In Africa, the private sector led many actions, particularly public health,
sanitary risk, and economic development (Madani, 2020). In Indonesia, the
official government seems not ready yet to declare the new normal policy as
relaxation of PSBB (large-scale social restriction). Otherwise, economic
strategy by the Indonesian government is premature, while the private sector
keeps operating to push our economic condition forward (Nurbaiti,
2020).Nevertheless, in Indonesia, the lack of seriousness was showed by
several official government figures, especially by the Minister of Health of
the Republic of Indonesia, Terawan Agus Putranto. His several statements to
mass media led to denial behavior by society (Garjito, 2020). A statement in
early April 2020 by Head of the Disaster Information and Communication Data
Center of the National Disaster Management Plan (BNPB), Agus Wibowo, included
data from the central government that were different from the reported data
of the provincial level, which was worsened by the limited information from
the Ministry of Health (Ferdian, 2020). The mismatch of information was
proven by joint researchers from 10 national and international universities.
This research, which was conducted in Jakarta and published on April 12,
2020, provided that the positive cases should be 32,000, while the BNPB
official website reported only 3,000 cases (Ferdiaz, 2020).With the emergence
of Novel Coronavirus, we should learn to be more prepared for all forms of
non-traditional threats, especially when it is a terrible outbreak. The world
should cooperate on sharing data and information and on scientific research
regarding the combat of COVID-19, so that the world public health policy is
more data-driven. Moreover, government officials should cooperate with the private
sector as the actors in the field of crisis, because it raises strong
synergism among all elements.References:Ernis,
Devy. (July 2020). Buta Data Menghadapi Corona.
Retrieved from https://majalah.tempo.co/amp/nasional/160878/sengkarut-data-covid-19-angka-kematian-ternyata-lebih-dari-13-ribu?__twitter_impression=trueFerdian,
Habib. (2020). Informasi Virus Corona di Indonesia tidak
Transparan: Data Pusat dan Daerah Beda.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com/amp/s/m.kumparan.com/amp/kumparansains/informasi-virus-corona-di-indonesia-tidak-transparan-data-pusat-dan-daerah-beda-1tDPX9BZzkFFerdiaz,
Nikita Yulia. (April 2020). Usai BNPB Sebut Ada Ketidaksesuaian
Data, Kini Peneliti Gabungan Ungkap ada 32.000 Kasus Positif Corona di DKI
Jakarta.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com/amp/s/health.grid.id/amp/352101528/usai-bnpb-sebut-ada-ketidaksesuaian-data-kini-penelitian-gabungan-ungkap-ada-32-ribu-kasus-positif-virus-corona-di-dki-jakartaGarjito,
Dany. (March 2020). Komunikasi Menkes Terawan Dikritik, 4 Pernyataan
Soal Corona Jadi Sorotan
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Government. (2008). Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2008 about Public
Information Opennes
. Jakarta: State Secretariat.Madani, Adil El.
(May 2020). International Development and the Private Sector in the
Coronavirus Outbreak.
Retrieved from https://www.policycenter.ma/opinion/international-development-and-private-sector-coronavirus-outbreak#.XxOAAjMxUwANurbaiti,
Alya. (June 2020). Private Sector Urges Govt to Lay out
Post-COVID-+9 Economic Strategy.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.thejakartapost.com/amp/news/2020/06/13/private-sector-urges-govt-to-lay-out-post-covid-19-economic-strategy.htmlOratmangun,
Djauhari. (2003). Human Development and Human Security: a Journey
Towards a Humane Global World
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Nina. (April 2020). We could be vastly overestimating the death
rate for COVID-19. Here’s why
. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/we-could-be-vastly-overestimating-the-death-rate-for-covid-19-heres-why/World
Bank. (2020). Understanding the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic
through data.
Retrieved from http://datatopics.worldbank.org/universal-health-coverage/coronavirus/World
Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019)
situation reports
. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports

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